التشدد العنيف والإرهاب
VIOLENT EXTREMISM & TERRORISM
DAGGER AT HEART OF THE COUNTRY
Violent Extremism and Terrorism (VET) is a menace engulfing our world today. In our own community we see its ugly face, the cruelty, the horror and the destruction it has brought. These violent extremists and terrorists have hijacked Islam and twist it to legitimize and justify their wrongdoings and terroristic activities like suicide bombings, beheading of innocent civilians, kidnappings and the like.
Adhering to the Qur’anic injunction, “Enjoining what is good, and forbidding what is evil,” the Ulama have conducted series of conferences and summits. These gatherings done for counter-narratives to prevent and counter violent extremism and terrorism in its many forms and manifestations.
Prohibition of Extremism in the Holy Qur’an
يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا تَغْلُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ وَلَا تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْحَقَّ ۚ إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَىٰ مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِّنْهُ ۖ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ ۖ وَلَا تَقُولُوا ثَلَاثَةٌ ۚ انتَهُوا خَيْرًا لَّكُمْ ۚ إِنَّمَا اللَّهُ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ سُبْحَانَهُ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ ۘ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا (171)1
O People of the Book, be not excessive in your Faith, and do not say about Allah anything but the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary is only Messenger of Allah and His Word that He had delivered to Mary, and a spirit from Him. So, believe in Allah and His Messengers. And do not say, “Three”. Stop it. That is good for you. Allah is the only One God. Exalted is He above having a son. To Him belong what is in the Heavens and what is in the earth. And Allah is enough to trust in”. [An-Nisa, 4:171]
قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا تَغْلُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا أَهْوَاءَ قَوْمٍ قَدْ ضَلُّوا مِن قَبْلُ وَأَضَلُّوا كَثِيرًا وَضَلُّوا عَن سَوَاءِ السَّبِيلِ (المائدة: 77)
Say, “O People of the Book, be not excessive in your religion unjustly, and do not follow the desires of a people who have already gone astray, misled many and lost the right path”. – [Al-Maida, 5:77]
Prohibition of Extremism in the Hadith
يقول النبي ﷺ: إيَّاكُمْ وَالْغُلُوْ فِي الدِّيْنِ؛ فَإنَّمَا أَهْلَكَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ الغُلُوْ فِي الدِّيْنِ. (أخرجه أحمد:1/215، والنسائي:268، وابن ماجه:3029)
Beware of excessiveness in religion; the reason why people before you had been vanished because of excessiveness in religion. – [Ahmad 1/215, An-Nasai: 268, Ibn Majah: 3029]
وعن ابن مسعود قال، يقول ﷺ: هَلَكَ المُتَنَطّعُوْنَ! هَلَكَ الُمَتَنَطِّعُوْنَ! هَلَكَ المُتَنَطِّعُوْنَ. قالها ثلاثًا عليه الصلاة والسلام. – رواه مسلم (267ْ0)
According to Ibn Mas-ud, that the Prophet (pbuh) said: “Those who go to extremes will be destroyed… He said it 3 times”. – [Muslim, 2670]
What is VET?
- VET is an acronym of Violent Extremism and Terrorism
- VET is the beliefs and actions of people who erroneously use violence to achieve ideological, religious or political goals.
- VET a person or group decides that fear, terror and violence are justified to achieve ideological, political or social change, and then acts accordingly.
- Violent Extremism seeks change through fear and intimidation rather than through peaceful means.
When Violent Extremism started historically?
- Some modern historian linked the origin of Violent Extremism at the early stage of Islam particularly during the Caliphate of Ali, (radiya Allahu anhu) when some of his followers broke away from his group as he accepted the arbitration with his political opponent Muawiya, (radiya Allahu anhu), after the battle of Siffin.
- This group called Khawaridz (خوارج) or Outers, a plural form of Kharijie (خارجي) or Outer, as they went out from Ali, r.a. and declared rebellion against him and pronounced him as a murtad – apostate, or Kafir – unbeliever together with Muawiya and their two arbitrators; Abu Musa Al-Ash’arie, representing Ali, and ‘Amr bin Al-‘As, representing Muawiya.
- Their famous leaders: Hurqus bin Zuhair, Abdullah bin Al-Rasibi, Jabir bin Zaid Al-Azdey and some historian related Khawaridz to Abdullah bin Ibad.
What is the belief of Khawaridz?
- To declare Ali, Osman, Mo’awiyah, the Camelists and the Arbitrationists, those who generally agreed to arbitration, as kafir-infidels, except those who have expressed repentance;
- They declare infidels to those who do not acknowledge Ali, Osman and the rest mentioned above as infidels;
- Faith is not only a spiritual belief, it must be translated into action by enjoining the virtue and by prohibiting the vice;
- Absolute and obligatory revolt against a tyrannical Ruler and Imam;
- Enjoining ‘virtue’ and prohibiting ‘vice’ is not conditional to anything. This Divine rule must operate everywhere and without exception;
- Everyone else on globe was an infidel and liable to be condemned to death and to be perpetually lodged in Hell.
Groups of Kharijites
Khaarijite has more than 20 sects with 4 main groups:
- The Azaariqites (الأزارقة) – This group declared the killing of the wives and children of Muslims they considered apostates to be lawful. Some of them also made it lawful to violate contracts. They also held that whoever resides in the lands of disbelief is a disbeliever, keeping in mind that a land of disbelief is any land other than theirs.
- The Najadites (النجدية) – They made it lawful to kill non-Muslims under covenant with the Muslims and to take their wealth. Some of them also believe that dissimulation (taqiyah) in speech and deed is permissible even in killing people.
- The Bahaisites(البهيسية) –They asserted that when the ruler becomes a disbeliever (according to them), all of his subjects also become disbelievers.
- The Ajaridites (العجاردة) –To make secret assassinations lawful and they also make it permissible to enslave women and kill the children of the disbelievers (that includes Muslims).
How they are Prophesied and Described by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)?
في صحيح مسلم أن الرسول قال :
سيخرجُ في آخرِ الزمانِ قومٌ أحداثُ الأسنانِ ، سُفهاءُ الأحلامِ ، يقولون من خيرِ قولِ البريَّةِ . يقرأون القرآنَ لا يجاوزُ حناجرَهم . يمرُقون من الدِّينِ كما يمرقُ السَّهمُ من الرَّميَّةِ . فإذا لقيتُموهم فاقتُلوهم . فإنَّ في قتلِهم أجرًا لمن قتلهم عند اللهِ يومَ القيامةِ ” . وفي روايةٍ : بهذا الإسنادِ . وليس فيه ” يمرُقون من الدِّينِ كما يمرُقُ السَّهمُ من الرَّمِيَّةِ .
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
“There will appear at the end of time a people who are young of age, foolish-minded. They will speak with the best (and most-alluring) of speech (that is spoken) by people and will recite the Qurʾan, but it will not go beyond their throats. They will pass out of Islam as the arrow passes through its game. Whoever meets them, let him kill them, for there is a reward for whoever kills them.” – Sahih Muslim, book 12, Hadith 199. Sahih Bukhari (with similar words) Book 61, Hadith 118.
– قَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ : فَقُلْتُ لابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ : أَفَلا أُحَدِّثُكَ مَا سَمِعْتُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ؟ قَالَ : وَإِنَّكَ لَهَاهُنَا ؟ قُلْتُ : نَعَمْ ، فَقَالَ : حَدِّثْ ، فَقُلْتُ : سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، يَقُولُ : ” إِذَا خَرَجَتِ الرَّايَاتُ السُّودُ فَإِنَّ أَوَّلَهَا فِتْنَةٌ ، وَأَوْسَطَهَا ضَلالَةٌ ، وَآخِرَهَا كُفْرٌ
Abu Huraira said: I told to Ibn Abbas r.a. do I narrate what I’ve heard from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him)? He said: you were here!? I said: Yes, And he said: ddo narrate, then I said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) saying: “If the black flags appeared, the first flag is –the sign of- disorder (fitnah), the middle flag is –the sign of- deception (dhalala) and the last flag is –the sign of- blasphemy (kufrun).”
The Prophet’s Companion, Abū Umāmah al-Bāhilī radiAllaahu anhu said of the Khārijites: “The Khawarij are the dogs of Hellfire, they used to be Muslims but turned disbelievers.” When Abū Umāmah was asked whether this was his own speech or something he heard from the Prophet, he said, “Rather, I heard it from the Prophet .” – Sunan ibn Majah. Book 1, Hadith 181.
Anas ibn Malik reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “There will be division and sectarianism in my nation and a people (the Kharijites) will come with beautiful words and evil deeds. They will recite the Quran but it will not pass beyond their throats. They will leave the religion as an arrow leaves its target and they will not return to it as the arrow does not return to its bow. They are the worst of the creation. Blessed are those who fight them and are killed by them. They call to the Book of Allah but they have nothing to do with it. Whoever fights them is better to Allah than them.” (Source: Sunan Abī Dāwūd 4765, [authentic] according to Al-Albani)
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said:
يَخْرُجُ نَاسٌ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْمَشْرِقِ وَيَقْرَءُونَ الْقُرْآنَ لَا يُجَاوِزُ تَرَاقِيَهُمْ يَمْرُقُونَ مِنْ الدِّينِ كَمَا يَمْرُقُ السَّهْمُ مِنْ الرَّمِيَّةِ ثُمَّ لَا يَعُودُونَ فِيهِ حَتَّى يَعُودَ السَّهْمُ إِلَى فُوقِهِ
There will come a people from the east who recites the Quran but it will not go beyond their throats. They will pass through the religion just as an arrow pierces its target and they will not return to it just as the arrow does not return to the bow. (Source: Sahih Bukhari 7123)
Ibn Taymiyyah writes:
وَالْخَوَارِجُ هُمْ أَوَّلُ مَنْ كَفَّرَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ يُكَفِّرُونَ بِالذُّنُوبِ ، وَيُكَفِّرُونَ مَنْ خَالَفَهُمْ فِي بِدْعَتِهِمْ وَيَسْتَحِلُّونَ دَمَهُوَمَالَهُوَهَذِهِ حَالُ أَهْلِ الْبِدَعِ يَبْتَدِعُونَ بِدْعَةً وَيُكَفِّرُونَ مَنْ خَالَفَهُمْ فِيهَا وَأَهْلُ السُّنَّةِ وَالْجَمَاعَةِ يَتَّبِعُونَ الْكِتَابَ وَالسُّنَّةَ وَيُطِيعُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ الْحَقَّ وَيَرْحَمُونَ الْخَلْقَ
“The Kharijite sect was the first to declare Muslims to be unbelievers because of their sins. They charged as unbelievers whoever disagreed with their innovations and they made lawful the spilling of blood and the taking of wealth. This is the condition of the people of innovation, that they invent some religious innovation and then they excommunicate whoever disagrees with them concerning it. Rather, the people of the Sunnah and the community follow the Book and the Sunnah and they obey Allah and His Messenger and follow the truth. They have mercy upon the creation. True Muslims have mercy upon the entire creation, including unbelievers and idolaters, but the Kharaijites have no mercy for those outside their group. They declare other Muslims to be unbelievers by misinterpreting and misapplying the verses of the Quran.” (Source: Majmū’ al-Fatāwá 1/278)